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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

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Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Troy Sadkowsky - Wednesday, June 28, 2017

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none; color: #0000ff; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #0000ff}

Can we unlock the Deep Learning black box?

Artificial intelligence has experienced a boom in recent years due to the increasing automation and generation of big data. Due to deep learning and artificial neural networks, machines are acquiring new perceptual abilities, such as recognizing images, speech, or reading handwriting, paving the way for an infinite number of new applications in human lives. However, this leap forward in AI processing comes at a cost – the reasoning behind the choices that deep learning networks make has become inscrutable to the engineers that built them.

Progress in automated vision greatly benefits from deep learning because general visual processing is far too complex to code by hand. A program that can learn by observing human example or through complicated training sets, and can generate its own algorithms through an interconnected network of a dozen to several hundred layers of simulated neurons, positions us that much closer to a self-driving car, or other AI programs capable of sophisticated automated decision-making. But if we cannot understand a program’s individual decisions – why it chose to drive into a tree, why a patient’s medications should be changed, why one individual was hired for the job and another flagged as a terrorist – what ethical and moral boundaries are we crossing? And if an artificial intelligence program is not 100% accurate, as they rarely are, what are the dangers of putting ourselves at the mercy of a machine’s mistakes?

According to an article in MIT Technology Review (https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/), trust will be a key factor in future applications of deep learning. Once machines can explain their reasoning to humans, we will better be able to learn from and act on their insights. Research is underway to develop tools for machine learning programs to be able to explain themselves. Regina Barzilay, at MIT, is developing a system that can collaborate with doctors by extracting snippets of text that represent patterns it has discover, and Carlos Guestrin’s system, from the University of Washington, highlights significant keywords or parts of an image to support a particular decision.

However, interpretable deep learning is far off, and even then, explanations offered by machines will always be simplified to a degree, which will always make trusting machine learning programs controversial. As a consequence, the European Union might soon pass legislation to make explanations for automated decisions a fundamental legal right, required of the companies that implement AI machine programs.

Jeff Clune, an investigator at the University of Wyoming testing deep neural networks, offers that, just as with human intelligence and decision-making, it is perhaps “the nature of intelligence that only part of it is exposed to rational explanation. Some of it is just instinctual, or subconscious, or inscrutable”. As deep learning offers more appealing possibilities in medicine, technology and other industries, when and should, society take the deep learning leap of faith?

Comments
Robyn Channing commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:25 AM
Thanks for this great share. I have a great website with pizza vouchers for Dominos, Papa johns, Dennys, & more https://pizzacoupon24.com
Anna Petrain commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:27 AM
Thanks for this great post. I have a great website with pizza coupons for Dominos, Papa johns, Dennys, & more https://pizzacoupon24.com
Julie Lousteau commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:28 AM
Great share. I found some great pizza, burger & bbq coupons for a free menu from Dominos, Papa johns, Dennys, & more https://pizzacoupon24.com
Jean Pillo commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:29 AM
Great post. I found some great pizza, burger & bbq coupons for a free menu from Dominos, Papa johns, Dennys, & more https://pizzacoupon24.com
Maye Thielemann commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:35 AM
Hello! I just would like to give a huge thumbs up for the great info. I found some great pizza, burger & bbq coupons for a free menu from Dominos, Papa johns, Dennys, & more https://pizzacoupon24.com
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Frankie Corra commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:46 AM
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Carri Maggart commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:46 AM
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Pura Friedeck commented on 13-Jan-2019 01:48 AM
Hello! I just would like to give a huge thumbs up for the great info. I found some great pizza, burger & bbq vouchers for a free menu from Dominos, Papa johns, Dennys, & more https://pizzacoupon24.com
pdf schreibschutz entfernen commented on 13-Jan-2019 02:49 AM
I really delighted to find this website on bing, just what I was searching for : D also saved to fav.
nha cai uy tin commented on 13-Jan-2019 04:37 AM
The great thing concerning this DVD is that you can perform dance exercises anytime, with no partner.
They will shun jobs where there isn't any profit to the community involved.
With the amount of el cheapo acoustic guitars being churned out nowadays you will probably need somebody you trust
to assist you choose the first guitar.
pdf passwort commented on 13-Jan-2019 04:54 AM
Hello there, I discovered your site by way of Google whilst searching for a related topic, your website came up, it seems to be good. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
pdf entschlüsseln commented on 13-Jan-2019 07:42 AM
Can I say what relief to uncover someone who in fact knows what theyre referring to on the net. You definitely learn how to bring a worry to light and make it important. More people have to look at this and understand this side of your story. I cant believe youre no more common because you undoubtedly have the gift.
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pdf geschützt aufheben commented on 13-Jan-2019 09:14 AM
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188bet commented on 13-Jan-2019 04:16 PM
This work reveals a kind of poetic mood and everyone would be easily attracted by
it. After the Bourbon Restoration, as the trial participant
of Louis XVI, David was deprived of his civil right and property, and was forced to leave his homeland to
be in in Brussels where David also completed many works, and finally
died in a very strange land. The beginning of Leonardo's life was
dedicated to art and painting in particular.
geschützte pdf bearbeiten commented on 13-Jan-2019 04:28 PM
Well, this Thursday I read through a couple of your posts. I must say this is one of your better ones. ..
pdf kennwort entfernen commented on 13-Jan-2019 06:41 PM
I haven?t checked in here for some time because I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are great quality so I guess I will add you back to my everyday bloglist. You deserve it my friend
Barb commented on 13-Jan-2019 07:17 PM
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Jordan commented on 13-Jan-2019 09:57 PM
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Aw, it was a really nice post. In notion I have to put in place writing like this additionally – spending time and actual effort to have a top notch article… but what can I say… I procrastinate alot and also by no indicates apparently go carried out.
in pdf suchen commented on 14-Jan-2019 12:51 AM
The guidelines you provided here are really useful. It was such an enjoyable surprise to have that awaiting me as i woke up this very day. They are constantly to the point and easy to understand. Thanks for your time for the innovative ideas you’ve shared above.

Post a Comment




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Trackback Link
http://www.datascientists.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=10882&PostID=711829&A=Trackback
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